Program Outcomes and Assessment

Program Outcomes (POs) or graduate attributes are narrower statements that describe what students are expected to know and be able to do by the time of graduation. These statements relate to the knowledge, skills and attitudes acquired by students while progressing through the program. The program must demonstrate that by the time of graduation, students have achieved an acceptable minimum level of certain knowledge, skills and behavioral traits. The BAETE specifically requires that students acquire the following graduate attributes:

(a) Apply knowledge of mathematics, natural science, engineering fundamentals and an engineering specialization as specified in K1 to K4 respectively to the solution of complex engineering problems.

(b) Identify, formulate, research literature and analyse complex engineering problems reaching substantiated conclusions using first principles of mathematics, natural sciences and engineering sciences. (K1 to K4)

(c) Design solutions for complex engineering problems and design systems, components or processes that meet specified needs with appropriate consideration for public health and safety, cultural, societal, and environmental considerations. (K5)

(d) Conduct investigations of complex problems using research-based knowledge (K8) and research methods including design of experiments, analysis and interpretation of data, and synthesis of information to provide valid conclusions.

(e) Create, select and apply appropriate techniques, resources and modern engineering and IT tools, including prediction and modeling, to complex engineering activities with an understanding of their limitations.

(f) Apply reasoning informed by contextual knowledge to assess societal, health, safety, legal and cultural issues and the consequent responsibilities relevant to professional engineering practice and solutions to complex engineering problems. (K7)

(g) Understand and evaluate the sustainability and impact of professional engineering work in the solution of complex engineering problems in societal and environmental contexts. (K7)

(h) Apply ethical principles and commit to professional ethics and responsibilities and norms of engineering practice. (K7)

(i) Function effectively as an individual, and as a member or leader in diverse teams and in multi-disciplinary settings.

(j) Communicate effectively on complex engineering activities with the engineering community and with society at large, such as being able to comprehend and write effective reports and design documentation, make effective presentations, and give and receive clear instructions.

(k) Demonstrate knowledge and understanding of engineering management principles and economic decision-making and apply these to one’s own work, as a member and leader in a team, to manage projects and in multidisciplinary environments.

(l) Recognize the need for, and have the preparation and ability to engage in independent and life-long learning in the broadest context of technological change.

In addition to incorporating the above-listed POs (graduate attributes), the educational institution may include additional outcomes in its learning programs. An engineering program that aims to attain the abovementioned POs must ensure that its curriculum encompasses all the attributes of the Knowledge Profile (K1 – K8) as presented in Table 4.1 and as included in the PO statements. The ranges of Complex Problem Solving (P1 – P7) and Complex Engineering Activities (A1 – A5) are given in Tables 4.2 and 4.3, respectively.

Table 4.1: Knowledge Profile




  A systematic, theory-based understanding of the natural sciences applicable to the discipline
  Conceptually based mathematics, numerical analysis, statistics and formal aspects of computer and information science to support analysis and modelling applicable to the discipline
  A systematic, theory-based formulation of engineering fundamentals required in the engineering discipline
  Engineering specialist knowledge that provides theoretical frameworks and bodies of knowledge for the accepted practice areas in the engineering discipline; much is at the forefront of the discipline
  Knowledge that supports engineering design in a practice area
  Knowledge of engineering practice (technology) in the practice areas in the engineering discipline
  Comprehension of the role of engineering in society and of the identified issues in engineering practice in the discipline: ethics and the engineer’s professional responsibility to public safety; the impacts of engineering activity in economic, social, cultural, environmental and sustainability terms
  Engagement with selected knowledge in the research literature of the discipline

Table 4.2: Range of Complex Engineering Problem Solving



Complex Engineering Problems have characteristic P1 and some or all of P2 to P7:

Range of conflicting requirements    Involve wide-ranging or conflicting technical, engineering and other issues
Depth of analysis required    Have no obvious solution and require abstract thinking and originality in analysis to formulate suitable models.
Depth of knowledge required    Require research-based knowledge, much of which is at or informed by the forefront of the professional discipline, that allows a fundamental-based, first-principles analytical approach
Familiarity of issues    Involve infrequently encountered issues
Extent of applicable codes    Are outside the problems encompassed by standards and codes of practice for professional engineering
Extent of stakeholder involvement and level of conflicting requirements    Involve diverse groups of stakeholders with widely varying needs
Consequences    Have significant consequences in a range of contexts
Interdependence    Are high-level problems that include many component parts or sub-problems

Table 4.3: Range of Complex Engineering Activities



Complex activities means (engineering) activities or projects that have some or all of the following characteristics:

Range of resources    Involve the use of diverse resources (for this purpose, resources include people, money, equipment, materials, information and technologies)
Level of interaction    Require the resolution of significant problems arising from interactions between wide-ranging or conflicting technical, engineering or other issues
Innovation    Involve the creative use of engineering principles and research-based knowledge in novel ways
Consequences for society and the environment    Have significant consequences in a range of contexts, characterized by their difficulty of prediction and mitigation
Familiarity    Are outside the problems encompassed by standards and codes of practice for professional engineering

Requirements and desirable attributes under this criterion are described in terms of the following sub-criteria.

  1. POs specified by the program must be significantly equivalent to the twelve graduate attributes or POs of BAETE.
  2. POs must contribute to each PEO.
  3. The process involved in defining and refining the POs must be described. The correlation between the course outcomes (COs) and POs must be demonstrated through the mapping of COs onto POs.
  4. The way in which each attribute of the Knowledge Profile (K1 – K8) is addressed in the curriculum must be demonstrated through mapping. The program must also demonstrate how the attributes of the Range of Complex Engineering Problems (P1 – P7) and Complex Engineering Activities (A1 – A5) are incorporated in the teaching, learning and assessment.
  5. A course file must be maintained for each course. The course file should include the assessment of outcomes, curriculum, examination questions and answer scripts, other assessment tools and samples of corresponding student works, and a summary of performance and attainment of course outcomes with suggestions or feedback for future development.
  6. POs must be assessed using direct methods. Direct methods of assessment are accomplished through the direct examination or observation of students’ knowledge or skills against measurable performance indicators or rubrics. In addition, indirect methods may also be used for PO assessment. Indirect methods of assessment are based on opinions or self-reports from different stakeholders. The way in which various assessment tools, including examinations and rubrics, contribute to the evaluation of attainment of each PO must be described. The results of the evaluation of PO attainment must be shown.
  7. It must be demonstrated through evidence from appropriate evaluation that the students attain all the POs by the time of the graduation.